We all know that feeding cows high-quality forage can translate to increased profitability, thanks to its superior digestibility and encouragement of dry matter intake. However, over the past few years, prices have been on the rise as the result of a limited forage supply. Despite its high cost, whether we are feeding on our farms or shipping down the road as a source of income, we can all agree that forage quality matters.
Forage is a valuable farm feed ingredient — so why doesn’t forage quality get more attention? Many of us have invested large amounts of money into both equipment and seed and have dedicated countless hours to planting, cutting and checking fields. At the end of the day, many resources are dedicated to putting up
Forage accounts for more than 50 percent of most dairy rations. As such, the quality of the forages fed is a key determinant of profitability. High-quality silages improve balanced rations but cannot necessarily be matched with complementary feedstuffs, which often add expense. Spoiled silages make it difficult for dairies to reach their profitability goals and can lead to serious herd health and fertility issues. Furthermore, forages are our primary feed resource, and the use of high-quality silages gives us the opportunity to reduce our purchased feed costs.
When evaluating the process of producing high-quality forages on-farm, the topic of inoculants and preservatives often comes up. We are asked countless questions about the costs and application of these products and which ones might best fit a producer’s needs, but in most cases, the most important question is: Are they worth it?
Inoculants and preservatives are very different. An inoculant’s goal is to add good, viable bacteria to help direct fermentation toward a low pH as quickly as possible, and/or to improve aerobic and
Forage crops harvested for silage contain a natural population of “good” microorganisms, which can promote the desired fermentation, as well as “bad” microorganisms — such as harmful yeasts, molds
When determining which inoculant to use, consider the following questions:
- Do you ever get smelly, butyric silage? And/or are you worried about dry matter losses and the loss of digestible nutrients in ensiling?
- Is it important to maximize feed quality (digestibility) during ensiling?
- Do you ever see your silage and/or TMR heat?
- Have you seen any mold spoilage in the silage?
- Do you have plans to move the silage?
- Do you plan to feed silage during warm weather?
If you answered yes to any of the above questions, utilizing a research-proven inoculant could help you manage your forage quality potential by aiding in the fermentation process, enhancing digestibility and increasing
When deciding whether or not a preservative is
the right choice for you, consider the following questions:
- Was the forage harvested at the correct level of maturity and at an ideal dry matter percentage?
- Have high mold and yeast counts been a forage quality issue in the past?
- Are you looking for a more economical approach to preserving forage? Higher-cost
buchneriinoculants may not be needed if the crop is harvested at an ideal maturity and dry matter percentage.
If you answered yes to any of the above questions, a preservative may be a good fit for your forage program. Our research on preservatives has led us to focus on an enzyme- and sulfur-based product that allows unique enzymes to convert more complex forage carbohydrates to sugar. Water-soluble carbohydrates combine with enzyme-produced sugars to result in more sugars being available for naturally occurring, lactic acid-producing bacteria. This unique combination of ingredients allows for a more rapid and efficient fermentation by the lactic acid-producing bacteria naturally present in forage, while sulfur-containing antioxidants limit the growth of undesirable yeast and molds.
Jon Pretz, Ph.D., PAS is a dairy nutritionist serving producers across the Midwest.
Dr. Pretz earned his Bachelor of Science and Master of Science from Kansas State University and his Ph.D. in Dairy Cattle Nutrition from South Dakota State University. His professional interests include nutrition and management consulting in regard to diet optimization, forage management, protocol development, transition cow management, and product evaluation. Jon has conducted extensive research on strategies to increase forage quality and digestibility as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on production parameters.
Jon is a member of the American Dairy Science Association and American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists and coached Collegiate Dairy Cattle Judging Teams at both Kansas State University and South Dakota State University during his graduate studies.
Return on investment (ROI) for inoculants and preservatives
The cost of beneficial bacteria and/or preservatives is relatively low in comparison to the cost of the land, equipment, fertilizer
Improved dry matter recovery:
Expected DM recovery benefit = 4.2%
Assumed value of silage = $50/ton fresh weight (30% DM)
Value of DM = $167/ton = $1.67 per point of DM
So, a 4.2% improvement is worth $7.01/ton DM = $2.10/ton as fed.
Maintaining stability at
4.4% reduction in DM loss = 44 tons/1000 tons DM = 40.2 tons 86% DM dry corn
Value of dry corn = $133/ton
So, a value of 4.4% less DM loss at
At 30% DM, value per ton of silage = $5,346/3,333 = $1.60/ton
Improved TMR stability
High-quality inoculants can have greater stability than 5–10 lbs. of bunk stabilizers/ton as fed
Generic bunk stabilizer price = $1.20/lb.; cost per ton TMR as fed = $6.00–12.00
So, savings per ton of silage = $6.00–12.00/ton as fed (Assume $6.00)
Total ROI = $9.70/ton
It’s important to remember that high-quality inoculants and preservatives cannot make up for poor crop management or poor-quality harvest due to less-than-desirable growing and harvesting conditions. When harvesting forage, the primary goals should always focus on targeting the appropriate stage of maturity and moisture content, while managing the harvest, storage
Reach out to your local Hubbard Feeds dealer or dairy team member for inoculant and preservative pricing to better reach your forage quality goals.